Spanish version

09. - Amadeo de Saboya (1845 - 1890)

Amadeo de SaboyaThis was second King not belonging to the Borbon Dinasty who became King of Spain.
Amadeo de Saboya was born in Turin. He was the second son of Victor Manuel II, first KingGeneral Juan Prim of Italy and Maria Adelaida of Austria.
After Isabel II had been exiled to France, a provisional government was formed. Juan Prim was one of the main participants in the revolution that forced Isabel II  into exile. The members of this group really had no political program, they were just united because of their anti-Isabel feeling. It seems that once the revolution was over each one wanted to have an important role in the new government. So they thought that a new king had to be chosen.The new parliament proclaimed the Constitution of 1869 which foresaw a constitutional monarchy. There were many pretenders to the throne, but many of them were not eligible. Finally Prim proposed Amadeo de Saboya. He was latin, catholic and a mason like Prim. Spaniards called Amadeo the "King of Prim", being the first king to be elected by parliament.
Amadeo I had counted on the support of the progressive parties and specially Prim, but unfortunately Prim was killed just before Amadeo I took the oath in 1870. He had to face very difficult situations, republican and borbonic conspiracies, the Carlist War, the War inGeneral Martinez Campos Cuba, internal conflicts in the political parties..... He only rallied the Sagastasupport of the liberal party, which divided into the radical and the constitutional party increasing the instability. It must be said that Amadeo had no special political abilities or knowledge, he did not speak Spanish and never learned the language.
Finally Amadeo I resigned in 1873, considering the Spaniards as ungovernable. He had been Spain´s king  for only three years and nobody really liked him, the political parties because he did not represent their interests, the aristocracy because he was just a foreigner. As he continued with the Ecclesiastical Confiscation the Church did not support him either, and the Spanish people did not like him because he could not speak Spanish.
He returned to Turin becoming Duke of Aosta. He stayed there until his death in 1890.
After Amadeo I left Spain the First Republic was proclaimed. The Congress had proclaimed itself the government in National Assembly. Most of the polititians belonged to the two monarchic parties, the Radical Party headed by Ruiz Zorilla and the Constitutional Party headed by Sagasta. There was also a republican minority divided into smaller groups. General Pavia´s troops entering the CongressFrom 1873 to 1874 the Republic had 9 different governments. Finally there was a General Paviacoup d´état by  General Pavia and a second period of temporary governments followed. During this time Canovas del Castillo supported the return of the Borbonic Monarchy with Alfonso XII. General Martinez-Campos also proclaimed that he was in favour of Alfonso XII. Finally, in January 1875 Alfonso returned to Spain and was proclaimed King.

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