Spanish version

07. - Fernando VII (1784-1833)

Fernando VIIFernando VII was the son of Carlos IV and his wife Maria Luisa de Parma. He had reigned for a short time after forcing his father to resign.

After the defeat of Napoleon´s army, Jose I left Spain and Fernando VII came back in 1814.

The Spaniards that had lived in France during the reign of Jose I used to meet in a restaurant in Bordeaux, which later would be the origin of the famous restaurant Lhardy in Madrid.

During the Spanish War of Independence a group of followers of the Spanish king had formedMaria Cristina de Borbon the 'Cortes de Cadiz' working as Constitutional Convention waiting for the king´s return. They had passed the Constitution of 1812, called La Pepa. This Constitution was based on the principle of national sovereignty with the government in the hands of the monarchy. The King and the Cortes could pass laws together.
But when Fernando VII returned in 1814 he revoked the Constitution and all the laws they had established. The Absolute Monarchy was restored.
Fernand VII fought the people that had supported the French, called the afrancesados, as well as the liberals. But the liberal movement spread through Spain and the King finally signed the Constitution of 1812 in 1820. Even so he continued fighting the liberals and asked the Holy Alliance (Russia, Austria and Prussia) for help. They sent the French army (Cien mil hijos de San Luis - Saint Louis´hundred-thousand sons) that restored once again the absolute king. Fernando VII again revoked the Constitution.
Carlos, Fernando´s brother During this time most of the American colonies became independent.

Fernando VII married four times, but only had children with his last wife, Maria Cristina de Borbon-Dos Sicilias, his niece.
He passed a Law, already established by his father, Carlos IV, that also allowed women to become Queens of the country. In this case, Fernando VII´s daughter, Isabel would inherit the crown.
But his brother, Carlos, wanted to be the heir. He and his followers fought Isabel: they were called the Carlistas.

When the king died his daughter was only 3 years old, and her mother, Maria Cristina reigned in her name. She tried to get closer to the liberals forseeing that times were changing.

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